Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Pathologic condition. AMD is a progressive eye disease that effects the macula region of the retina. Effecting the straight-ahead activities, such as reading, driving, and watching TV. Link to AMD

Air fluid gas exchange(AFGE, AFX) Surgical procedure. Replacement of vitreal fluid with air or gas. Generally used in vitrectomy and retinal detachment surgery.

Amaurosis fugax (Am-uh-ROH-sus FYU-jaks). Pathologic condition. Sudden, transient, decrease in vision of one eye; varies from peripheral field constriction to total blindness. Usually caused by insufficient blood flow to the ophthalmic artery.

Aneurysm (AN-yuh-rizm). Pathologic condition. A weakened area in a blood vessel that causes a ballooned-out section in the vessel wall. Referred to as microaneurysms or macroaneurysms with concerns to the retina.

Anterior. Location. The front of the body or body part.

Anterior chamber. Anatomy. Fluid-filled space inside the eye between the iris and back lining of the cornea.

Aqueous (AY-kwee-us). Anatomy. The clear, watery fluid that fills the space between the back surface of the cornea and the front surface of the vitreous, bathing the lens. Nourishes the cornea, iris, and lens and maintains intraocular pressure.

Artery. Anatomy. Blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.

Atrophy (AT-roh-fee). Anatomical defect. Wasting away or loss of function of cells, tissue, or an organ.

Bruch’s membrane (brooks). Anatomy. A thin layer of tissue that separates the pigmented layer of the retina from the choroid layer.

Cataract (KAT-uh-rakt). Pathologic condition. Opacity or cloudiness of the crystalline lens, which may prevent a clear image from forming on the retina.

Choroid (KOR-oyd). Anatomy. Layer of the eye that is made up of tiny blood vessels, which lies between the retina and the sclera. The dark-colored pigment in the choroid absorbs light and limits reflections within the eye that could hurt vision.

Chorioretinitis (KOR-ee-oh-ret-ih-NI-tis). Pathologic condition. Inflammation of the choroid and retina of the eye.

Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV). Pathologic condition. Abnormal formation of new blood vessels in the choroid. See wet AMD

Choroidal nevus (NEE-vus). Anatomic defect. Benign pigmented or nonpigmented lesion(freckle) in the choroid.

Cornea (KOR-nee-uh). Anatomy. The clear front window of the eye that allows light to enter the eyeball. See how the Eye Works

Drusen (DRU-zin). Pathology. Tiny yellow or white accumulations of extracellular material that build up in Bruch’s membrane. The presence of larger and more numerous drusen in the macula is a common early sign of age-related macular degeneration. Link to Dry AMD

Endophthalmitis (en-dahf-thal-MI-tus). Pathologic condition. Inflammation of the tissues inside the eyeball. A complication of all intraocular surgeries, with possible loss of vision and the eye itself. Most commonly caused by infection by various bacteria and fungi. Urgent intervention is need.

Fovea (FOH-vee-uh). Anatomy. Central pit in the macula that produces sharpest vision. Contains a high concentration of cones and is absent of retinal blood vessels. Link to The Retina

Fundus. Anatomy. Interior posterior surface of the eyeball; includes retina, optic disc, macula, posterior pole.

Iris. Anatomy. Pigmented tissue lying behind the cornea that gives color to the eye.(e.g. blue eyes, brown eyes) and controls the amount of light that enters the eye by varying the size of the pupillary opening according to lighting conditions.

Ischemia (retinal). (is-SKEE-mee-uh). Pathologic condition. Abnormal reduction of retinal blood supply starving the retina of oxygen. May result in retinal edema, cotton-wool spots, microaneurisms, venous engorgement, and neovascularization.

Lens. Anatomy. Transparent body located behind the cornea and iris. The Lens in conjunction with the cornea bring light rays to focuses onto the retina. Link to How the Eye Works

Macula. (MAK-yu-luh). Anatomy. A small spot of light-sensitive cells located at the center of the retina. Is specifically responsible for central vision. See The Retina

Neovascularization. (nee-oh-VAS-kyu-lur-ih-ZAY-shun). Pathologic condition. The formation of new abnormal blood vessels, usually in or under the retina or on the iris surface(rubeosis iridis).

Occlusion. Pathologic condition. Blockage, as of a blood vessel.

Optic nerve. Anatomy. The nerve that carries visual signals from the retina to the brain(visual cortex at the back of the head).

Photoreceptors. (foh-toh-ree-SEP-turz). Anatomy. Constitutes the rod and cone cells of the retina. These cells convert light into electrical impulses for transmission of messages to the brain (visual cortex). Your cone cells are generally thought of as being responsible for your color and detail vision and your rod cells for night vision and peripheral movement.

Retina (sensory)(RET-ih-nuh). Anatomy. The light sensitive nerve tissue in the eye that converts images from the eye’s optical system (cornea and lens) into electrical impulses that are sent along the optic nerve to the brain, to interpret as vision. A thin membranous lining forming the inside rear two-thirds of the globe. Consists of 10 layers. Link to The Retina

Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE). (ep-ih-THEE-lee-um). Anatomy. Pigment cell layer just outside the retina that nourishes retinal visual cells. Firmly attached to underlying choroid and overlying retinal visual cells.

Retinopathy (ret-in-AHP-uh-thee). Pathologic condition. Any non-inflammatory degenerative disease of the retina.

Sclera (SKLEH-ruh). Anatomy. The protective layer of fibrous tissue that surrounds the entire eyeball, except the cornea. Link to How the Eye Works

Uvea (YU-vee-uh). Anatomy. Pigmented vascular layers of the eye(iris, ciliary body, choroid); contains most of the intraocular blood vessels.

Uveitis (yu-vee-I-tis). Pathologic condition. Inflammation of any of the structures of the uvea: iris, ciliary body, or choroid.

Vasculitis. Pathologic condition. Inflammation of a blood or lymph vessel.

Vein. Anatomy. Blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart.

Vitreous (VIT-ree-us). Anatomy. Transparent, colorless, gelatinous mass that fills the rear two-thirds of the eyeball, between the lens (anteriorly) and the retina (posteriorly). Link to The Vitreous